Shaymaa Jaber Hameed
Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease, characterized by decreased synthesis of thyroid hormones and leading to several metabolic problems. This review aims to find the relationship between hypothyroidism and deficiency of some vitamins and minerals. We comprehensively analysed the existing literature to find and evaluate studies that evaluated this relationship. The study included an analysis of vitamins B12 and D and some minerals, including iron, selenium, iodine, and zinc. The findings of this review indicate that specific inadequacies may play a role in the onset or progression of hypothyroidism. Vitamin D insufficiency can lead to reduced synthesis of thyroid hormones, therefore affecting the development of thyroid autoimmunity. In addition, insufficient amounts of vitamin B12 have been associated with thyroid dysfunction and alterations in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Iron deficiency affects thyroid hormone synthesis. Whereas, Selenium plays an essential role in the enzymatic processes that are responsible for the metabolism of thyroid hormones. Moreover, zinc and iodine are essential for regulating thyroid hormones, and a deficiency in these minerals can result in disruptions in thyroid gland hormone levels.
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