Albajy Maitham Abdallah and Dan Florin Mihailescu
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has been defined as one of the commonly occurring metabolic disorders arising due to the combination of 2 primary factors, namely, inadequate insulin response in the insulin-sensitive tissues and insufficient insulin secretion through pancreatic beta-cells. The precise regulation of insulin release, detection, and synthesis is imperative for glucose homeostasis maintenance, and involves intricate molecular mechanisms. The onset of the disease may be attributed to a metabolic imbalance arising from deficiencies in any of the mechanisms in processes. This research examines the primary characteristics of T2DM, including the molecular mechanisms and pathways contributing to the insulin resistance (IR) and T2DM development. The information is compiled with the aim of examining insulin release, sensing, synthesis, and resulting effects on various insulin-sensitive organs. Special attention is paid to these aspects. This paper examines the various pathogenic factors contributing to T2DM development and progression, including diet, exercise, gut dysbiosis, and metabolic memory. The present discourse delves into the molecular pathways which establish a connection between IR and T2DM. Furthermore, the discussion highlights the noteworthy implications of T2DM, particularly the hastened progression of atherosclerosis, on cardiovascular risk.
Pages: 198-208 | 72 Views 21 Downloads