Rejeesh R, Beena AK, Sudhir Kumar Tomar, Saurabh Kadyan, Archana C and Akshay P Kumar
The process of stool transfer from healthy donors to the sick known as faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has an ancient history but, only recently researchers have started investigating its application in an evidence-based manner. Donor selection, stool preparation and delivery mode are the underlying prerequisites to achieve maximum efficacy from the application of FMT. Presently, patient-directed donors, and super donors via stool banks, are available options for FMT resources. The review proceeds with collating and discussing the updated information on protocols involved in the collection, preparation, processing, storage and administration of stool samples for its effective translation into recipients. The prospect of FMT in treating gastrointestinal and extra intestinal diseases like neuro-psychiatric diseases via gut-microbiome homeostasis has been elaborated while concomitantly pondering upon the current regulatory bottle necks associated with its commercialisation. Determining the characteristics of a healthy microbiome, its causality with different diseased states, and ensuring cost-effectiveness treatment are the major challenges for addressing. Ongoing advances in integrated multi-omics technologies will provide more insights into defined microbial consortia targeted to treat specific disease conditions, wherein FMT is poised to emerge as a new therapeutic duly supported by a regulatory framework in place and validated findings of clinical studies.
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