Shaymaa Jaber Hameed
Conjunctivitis is an eye disease that causes swelling or Conjunctival inflammation. It is one of the most common ocular diseases worldwide. This work aimed to study the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis (alcoholic and aqueous) extracts against isolated bacteria from conjunctivitis persons, further evaluation of the phytochemical test, antioxidant activity test, and sensitivity test for bacterial isolates. 50 samples were collected from conjunctivitis patients were visited private medical laboratories in Kirkuk city from 15 July to 1 December 2022 by using sterile transport swabs, planted into several culture media incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 37 ° C for 24-48 hr. diagnosed with biochemical tests and confirmed with the API system. Alcoholic and aqueous rosemary extracts were prepared with three concentrations 10%, 20%, and 30%. Three tests were conducted: sensitivity test, a phytochemical test, and an antioxidant activity test. Out of 50 samples, 31 (62%) were positive culture. While 19 cases gave a negative result to the culture. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent (11 isolates). Then Streptococcus viridance (8 isolates), Pseudomonas aeroginosa was prevalent (7 isolates), (3 isolates) of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia was (2 isolates). Regarding the extracts' inhibitory effect, the alcoholic extract was effective in strains than aqueous extract, and the inhibitory activity increased with increasing concentrations. Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to extracts of rosemary than Gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was shown to be the most sensitive to rosemary extracts, while Pseudomonas aeroginosa was found to be the least sensitive. The phytochemical reaction in alcohol extract revealed 8 phytochemical components, whereas revealed 5 phytochemical components in aqueous extract. In addition, alcohol extract had higher antioxidant activity than aqueous extract.
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