Newcastle Disease (ND) is regarded as one of the major diseases of poultry because of the devastating losses that the virulent form of the virus can impose on both commercial and village chicken. However, the disease can be controlled through the administration of effective vaccines. Almost all the commercially available vaccines require refrigeration and begin to deteriorate rapidly after 1-2 hours if left at room temperature (around 25°C). Subsequently, because maintaining an adequate supply of refrigerated facilities may be a difficult task in many developing countries with unreliable electrical supplies, the development and large scale production and utilization of an effective thermo-stable Newcastle disease vaccine seems imperative to support rural poultry industry. Participatory/action research on vaccination of village poultry against Newcastle disease (ND) was carried out in two selected villages of Bullie district of Gedio zone, southern Ethiopia; with an objective to demonstrate community based thermo-stable ND vaccination scheme and thereby; to increase the population of chicken in backyard production system. We have selected four community vaccinators, two per each village and trained on diagnosis of major poultry diseases, with the major emphasis on Newcastle disease, on preparation, handling and administration of thermo-sable ND vaccine. From the two villages, we have vaccinated 362 chicken of all age ranges of 54 households, in the two rounds. For the vaccination we have selected a site which is suitable for household members to bring their chicken for vaccine administration. We used eye drop technique to administer a vaccine, by preparing one eye drop in one dose base for all age groups. We administered a vaccine before a pick prevalence of Newcastle disease in the study area, for the remaining three months, data was collected on the mortality rate of the chicken. The result shows that, of the total vaccinated chicken (362) from the two villages on the two rounds, 51 chicken were dead due to diseases, of the cases with a clinical sign not related with Newcastle disease. The total mortality rate of 14%, in this study shows that, thermo-stable Newcastle disease vaccine applied via eye drop is the most effective method for control Newcastle disease in village chicken. Therefore; with proper use of vaccine and vaccination programs using well trained community vaccinators, we can reduce village chicken mortality highly to enhance productivity of rural community at large.
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